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Champagne 101

Posted September 02, 2016

Sparkling wine is wine that has significant levels of carbon dioxide to make it fizzy.  The most well known example of sparkling wine is Champagne, a sparkling wine that is made in the Champagne region of France (wine made in France, as well as many other countries in Europe is more about the region than the particular grape used to make the wine). Sparkling wine not made in France is referred to as… well, Sparkling Wine.

 

Some sparkling wines from other regions have made a name for themselves and have become know by other names: Asti (Spumante- Near the town of Asti in Italy), Cava (Spain), Prosecco (Italy), Sekt (Czechoslovakia, Germany, Austria), and Cap Classique (South Africa).

 

Champagne is made primarily from Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and the lesser know Pinot Meunier. Sparkling wines from other countries can be made with a variety of different grapes, typically a grape indigenous to that country. 

 

One thing that differentiates all Champagnes and Sparkling wines is how the secondary fermentation takes place. This usually contributes to both the taste, and the cost of the wine. These two methods are:

  • Methode Champenoise or Metodo Classico: the secondary fermentation takes place in the bottle.
  • Charmat method: the secondary fermentation takes place in stainless steel tanks.

 

What you Need to Know:

Types of Champagne:

  • Prestige Cuvee (cuvee de prestige): Usually designates the top of the line for a producer: Louis Roederer’s Cristal, Moet & Chandon’s Dom Perignon.
  • Blanc de Noirs: A white wine made from the pinot noir and/or pinot Meunier grapes (the skins are removed from the process early on, hence the white juice)
  • Blanc de blanc: A white wine made from Chardonnay grapes.  
  • Rose': aka "Pink Champagne", typically, a small amount of Pinot Noir red wine is added during blending.

 

Sweetness:

Sweetness is determined by the amount of sugar added after the second fermentation (called dosage). From driest to sweetest, Sparkling wines use the following to designate how sweet their bubbly is:


  • Brut Zero (no sugar added)
  • Extra Brut
  • Brut
  • Extra Dry
  • Sec
  • Demi-sec
  • Doux (sweetest).

 

In my next post I’ll delve into some of the more popular types of sparkling wines mentioned above. 


Posted in Blog By Uncorked Hermosa

Types of Sparkling Wine

Posted September 02, 2016

Champagne

Most champagne is blended, coming from several vineyards, and varying vintages. Champagnes are generally made from Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, and/or Pinot Meunier. In my previous post, I described the types of champagne, and the names used to describe the relative sweetness/dryness of them. In general, champagnes can smell and taste of apple, pear, citrus, strawberry, cream and vanilla (typically on the finish). The limestone/chalk soil produces grapes that have a certain balance of acidity and richness that you don’t find in most other sparklers from other parts of the world. One of the main flavors that differentiate champagne (and other sparklers that utilize “methode champenoise”-secondary fermentation in bottle) is yeast and nutty flavors.

 

Crémant

Essentially Champagne, these sparkling wines were named (cremant, or creamy) because they originally had a more creamy texture when compared to Champagnes. Cremants are made outside of the Champagne region, mainly in France, and must be aged for at least a year. Several more grapes are allowed (the French have their rules!) to be used in the production of Cremant, among them Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc and Cabernet Franc. Cremant wines are made using the “methode champenoise”.

 

Cava

Cava is a white or pink sparkling wine from Spain and is made according to the “methode champenoise. Cava is typically made from a variety of grapes, some French (Chardonnay, Pinot Noir), some indigenous to Spain (Macabeu, Parellada). They also vary in sweetness from brut (extra dry) to seco (dry) to dulce (sweet).

 

Espumante

The Portuguese version of sparkling wine is produced throughout Portugal, the best coming from Bairrada, just south of Vinho Verde one of Portugal’s best known wine producing regions. Spain has one regulating body (rules again!)- DOC Cava. Look for wine labeled “VEQPRD” if you’re looking for a quality Espumante (and you should be, you’re purchasing it for a celebration, right?) from Bairrada. These are made in the traditional method used in the Champagne region of France and will indicate the vintage.  

 

Asti, Lambrusco, Prosecco

These are three different sparkling wines, all from different regions in Italy. Asti is typically slightly sweet and made from the Moscato grape, near the town of Asti. Lambrusco is a slightly sparkling red wine usually from north/central Italy between Florence and Milan.  It varies in sweetness from secco (very dry) to amabile (off dry/sweet) to dolce (sweet). The wine is acidic and often tastes of berries and is usually made in the Charmat method, where the 2nd fermentation takes place in a pressurized tank. Prosecco is typically dry or extra-dry, and is made from the Glera grape, usually in northern Italy around Venice, and in the Friuli region. It’s often served up alone, or used as a less expensive option to champagne in spritzers and the like.

 

American sparkling wines

Sparklers made in the US can be made using either of the traditional French methods (method champenoise, or charmat). The first sparklers in the US came from Korbel, out of Sonoma Valley in the late 1800’s. Subsequently, some of Champagnes most noted wine makers have come to produce Champagne from California: Moet et Chandon Domaine Chandon, Louis Roederer’s, and Taittinger. US wine laws don’t regulate sugar levels/ sweetness of wines (not as many rules in the states!) but most producers follow European standards, with Brut wine being dry, and Doux, sweet. There are also no laws governing aging length, which can be as little as 8 months. A few interesting sparkling wine makers in the U.S: Winemakers in the Finger Lakes region (New York) are making interesting sparkling wine from Riesling, and Gruet (New Mexico) makes several nice sparkling wines (Blanc de Blanc, Blanc de Noir, Brut, Extra Dry, Rose). 


Posted in Jeffs Blog By Uncorked Hermosa

Wine Basics 2: Bordeaux

Posted January 21, 2015

For the most part, in the United States we make wine out of grapes that originated in Europe. These grapes are of the species Vitis Vinifera (you may hear that term bandied about by your pretentious wine snob friends) and account for the majority of wines produced around the world. There are several native species of grapes in North America (vitis lambrusca, vitis riparia, vitis rotundifolia) but unfortunately most wines made from those grapes taste like ass. In fact Viking explorers called North America “Vinland” due to the profusion of grapes they found. The first wines produced in the United States by the French Huguenots were from the indigenous Scuppernong grape, but settlers didn’t like the wines made from native grapes as the flavors were unfamiliar to them. And then there was the name-would you rather be offering a glass of Scuppernong to that pretentious wine snob friend, or an elegant Pinot Noir? I’m just sayin…

 

The best way to understand California wine (and most wine in the United States) is to go back to the roots (no pun intended) and look into both the grapes, and regions of France where those grapes are grown. Typically, if you know what region in France a wine is from, you'll know what grape(s) that wine is made of. In an earlier post I pointed out that the main difference in identifying and comparing wines in California and Europe is a question of both grape varietal (i.e. - Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay) and region (Burgundy, Bordeaux). For the most part, Europe identifies its wines by the region it comes from, whereas we designate wine first by the varietal, and second by the region (Pinot Noir, Central Coast). A good place to start is by discussing the 5 primary Bordeaux grapes, and what grapes grow there.

 


Cabernet Sauvignon

The granddaddy of varietals in the US, Cabernet is a cross between Cabernet Franc, and Sauvignon Blanc. Cabernet is often the primary grape in Bordeaux blends (the other being Merlot) and are often referred to as “left bank blends” due to being grown on the left bank of the Gironde estuary- see map above. Cabernet has a lot going for it- thick skins, the vines are hardy, and it buds late so as to avoid late spring frost. In addition, it’s resistant to many hazards such as insects and rot, and produces wines of consistent structure and flavor from year to year. Unfortunately it’s not resistant to mediocre wine makers. Some if its success has even been attributed to its name and the ease of its pronunciation (take note Scuppernong).

 

Merlot

“I am NOT drinking any f*&king Merlot”- Miles (Paul Giamatti) in “Sideways”. Merlot is the most widely planted grape in Bordeaux and one of the world’s most planted varietals. It’s the offspring of Cabernet Franc and an obscure, unnamed varietal. Merlot is dark blue in color, and is “soft and fleshy” (like my first girlfriend) and ripens earlier than Cabernet. It’s often blended (“right bank blend”) with Cabernet to soften the harsher tannins of the Cabernet grape. Merlot blends from Bordeaux tend to be medium bodied with fresh red fruit flavors (strawberry, raspberry). By the way, at the end of Sideways Miles drinks his prized wine, a 1961 Chateau Cheval Blanc from a Styrofoam coffee cup at a fast food restaurant. The varietal? A merlot/cab franc blend.

 

Cabernet Franc

The father of Cabernet Sauvignon (or maybe its mother!), “Cab Franc” is subtly fragrant, and diminutive compared to Cabernet Sauvignon, which typically has bigger body, tannin, color, and alcohol. Cab Franc ripens a week or two before Cabernet Sauvignon and is pale red in color. It’s used primarily as a blending grape in France, playing second fiddle to Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. The United States has followed suit and will often make blends from the same varietals as in France. A blend of two or more Bordeaux grapes in the U.S. is often called a Meritage (some dudes got together and came up with the name and charge winemakers a buck a case to use the moniker). Recently, California has seen a rise in single varietal Cabernet Franc wines.

 

Malbec

Similar to a Syrah in taste, Malbec has come to be known as an awesome, reasonably priced red wine from Argentina, although it got its start in France as a blending grape, much like Cabernet Franc. Malbec is a purple grape that needs more sun and heat than Cabernet, Merlot, and George Hamilton. It ripens earlier than both Cab and Merlot, and It’s deep color, big tannins, and plum-like flavor can add complexity to Bordeaux style blends. Malbecs from Argentina usually have a velvety mouth feel along with intense fruity flavors and a smoky finish, and aren’t as Tannic as their French counterparts. Malbec does well in Argentina because the vines love high elevation, along with hot days and cool nights. Mendoza, Argentina’s chief wine growing region averages 3000 feet in altitude. I’m thinking Malbec may do well in Palmdale.

 

Petit Verdot

Used in small amounts to add tannin, color, and flavor to blends, Petit Verdot ripens later than the other Bordeaux varietals, which makes it easier to grow in California due to the more consistent, warmer climate. Like Cabernet Franc, California winemakers are beginning to experiment with Petit Verdot as a single varietal. If you have a Bordeaux blend and you taste banana or pencil shavings, that may be the Petit Verdot talkin’. 


Posted in Jeffs Blog By Uncorked Hermosa

Wine Basics 1: Most Popular American Varietals

Posted January 08, 2015

Most of the wines in America that we’re familiar with originated in Europe, mainly France. The difference between wines in the United States and France is a question of varietal vs. Terrior. Did I lose you? Let me explain. In the United States we often identify wine by the varietal (type of grape: Chardonnay, Merlot for instance). In Europe, the wine is most often identified by the region it comes from. One reason for this is due to European winemaking having a much longer history than winemaking in the United States, hence they’ve come to understand and value the importance of Terrior (Wikipedia describes Terroir as…the set of special characteristics that the geographygeology and climate of a certain place, interacting with plant genetics, express in agricultural products such as winecoffee ...). Another reason is that most European wines are often blends of several different grapes (Burgundy being a notable exception).

 

Since “serious” winemaking in the U.S is relatively young* and Americans are still learning to make (as well as how to appreciate) wines, we still refer to wines by the name of the grape to simplify matters. I would guess that as the industry evolves and American wine drinkers become more sophisticated, we will refer to wines by region more and varietal less. In a recent trip to Santa Ynez (Santa Barbara’s wine making region) most wineries I visited made it a point to talk about the vineyard(s) their grapes came from and what affect the location had on the wines.

 

Just to confuse matters (or hopefully to simplify things in the long run), in Europe, we often associate certain grapes with certain areas. We use those associations herein the states to give us a frame of reference, and to better understand the wine we're drinking.

 

In Europe, over the millennia winemakers have found out that certain grapes do better in different regions which are best suited to express the character of each particular grape. Here’s a rundown of the popular varietals in the United States, where they originated, and what region(s) in the United States have become known for those varietals. 

 

Varietal                                       

Origin

U.S region known for varietal/

Suggestion from the shelves of Uncorked


Cabernet

Sauvignon

Bordeaux

Napa Valley, Sonoma, Santa Ynez (Happy Canyon), Paso Robles, Washington state (Walla Walla, Columbia Valley, Red Mountain, etc)

William Harrison 2011 Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon


Merlot

Bordeaux

Napa Valley, Sonoma, Monterey,

Eastern Washington (Columbia Valley, etc)

Chacewater 2011 Lake County Merlot


Chardonnay

Burgundy

Most of California, Oregon, Washington

Cru 2012 Monterey County Chardonnay


Pinot Noir

Burgundy

California: Napa, Sonoma, Santa Ynez, Monterey, Mendocino, Central Coast, Oregon (Willamette Valley)

Brooks 2012 Willamette Valley Pinot Noir


Sauvignon Blanc

Bordeaux

Most of California, Washington State

Pier Avenue Sauvignon Blanc (Santa Barbara)


Syrah

Rhone Valley (France)

Napa, Santa Ynez, Walla Walla (WA)

The Missing Leg 2011 Syrah


Zinfandel

Italy via Croatia

Napa, Sonoma, Amador County, Santa Cruz, Paso Robles, Lodi

Opolo 2013 Summit Creek Zinfandel, Paso Robles

 

*For discussion purposes, I’ll use Napa Valley winemaking of the 70’s and the famous “Judgment of Paris” as a signpost of the first real recognition of “serious” winemaking in the United States.



Posted in Jeffs Blog By Uncorked Hermosa